Improved cerebral perfusion pressures and 24-hr neurological survival in a porcine model of cardiac arrest with active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation and augmentation of negative intrathoracic pressure

Anja K. Metzger, Margot Herman, Scott McKnite, Wanchun Tang, Demetris Yannopoulos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

45 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objective: Generation of negative intrathoracic pressure during the decompression phase of cardiopulmonary resuscitation enhances the refilling of the heart. We tested the hypothesis that when compared with closed-chest manual compressions at 80 chest compressions per min, treatment with active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation at 80 chest compressions/min combined with augmentation of negative intrathoracic pressure would lower intracranial pressure and increase cerebral perfusion, thereby improving neurologically intact survival rates following prolonged untreated cardiac arrest. Design: Prospective, randomized animal study. Setting: Animal laboratory facilities. Subjects: A total of 26 female farm pigs in two different protocols (n = 17 and n = 9). Interventions, Measurements, and Main Results: Seventeen pigs were subjected to 8.5 mins of untreated ventricular fibrillation and prospectively randomized to cardiopulmonary resuscitation at 80 chest compressions/min or active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation at 80 chest compressions/min plus an impedance threshold device. Coronary perfusion pressures (29.5 ± 2.7 mm Hg vs. 22.4 ± 1.6 mm Hg, p = .03), carotid blood flow (44.0 ± 12.2 vs. 30.9 ± 10.4, p = .03), and 24-hr neurological survival (88% vs. 22%, p = .015) were higher with active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation + an impedance threshold device. Cerebral perfusion pressures, measured in nine additional pigs, were improved with active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation + an impedance threshold device (21.9 ± 1.2 mm Hg vs. 8.9 ± 0.8 mm Hg, p < .0001). With active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation + impedance threshold device, mean diastolic intracranial pressure during decompression was lower (12.2 ± 0.2 mm Hg vs. 16.6 ± 1.2 mm Hg, p = .02) and the downward slope of the decompression phase intracranial pressure curve was steeper (-60.3 ± 12.9 mm Hg vs.-46.7 ± 11.1 mm Hg/sec, p < .001). Conclusions: Active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation + an impedance threshold device increased cerebral perfusion pressures and lowered diastolic intracranial pressure and intracranial pressure rate during the decompression phase. These mechanisms may underlie the observed increase in cerebral perfusion pressure, carotid blood flow, and survival rates with favorable neurologic outcomes in this pig model of cardiac arrest.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1851-1856
Number of pages6
JournalCritical care medicine
Volume40
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2012

Keywords

  • cardiac arrest
  • cardiopulmonary resuscitation
  • cerebrovascular circulation
  • intracranial pressure
  • intrathoracic pressure perfusion

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