Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
A large portion of NSF’s EAR annual budget supports infrastructure and facilities, which includes physical, cyber, and human infrastructure. As an example, human and physical infrastructure at US synchrotrons, utilized by mineral scientists worldwide, is supported in part by NSF EAR (e.g., via COMPRES). The report summarizes the current array of multiuser facilities and discusses how these relate to the science questions. Recommended new facilities include a National Consortium for Geochronology, a VeryLarge MultiAnvil Press Facility, and a NearSurface Geophysics Center. The report also recommends support for continued community development of other initiatives, such as SZ4D (subduction science and hazards); for a continentalscale effort to characterize the subsurface critical zone (to understand water, carbon, and nutrient cycles, among other goals); and for renewed attention to issues such as stable archival storage of physical samples of Earth materials.