Implications of personal genomic testing for health behaviors: The case of smoking

Emily Olfson, Sarah Hartz, Deanna Alexis Carere, Robert C. Green, J. Scott Roberts, Laura J. Bierut, Kurt D. Christensen, Margaret H. Helm, Joel B. Krier, Lisa S. Lehmann, Erica Schonman, Peter Kraft, Mick P. Couper, Wendy R. Uhlmann, Lan Q. Le, Mack T. Ruffin, Jenny Ostergren, Amy K. Kiefer, Joanna L. Mountain, Glenn D. BraunsteinScott D. Crawford, Clara A. Chen, L. Adrienne Cupples, Catharine Wang, Stacy W. Gray, Barbara A. Koenig, Kimberly Kaphingst, Sarah Gollust, PGen Study Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Introduction: Direct-to-consumer personal genomic testing has the potential to influence health behaviors, including smoking. Critics of this testing highlight limited evidence to support positive behavioral benefits and caution that genomic results may provide false reassurance, leading to unhealthy behaviors. This study investigates interest in genetic risks of smoking-related diseases and changes in smoking behaviors among genomic testing consumers. Methods: From 2012 to 2013, a longitudinal series of web surveys was conducted. A total of 1464 customers of 23andMe and Pathway Genomics completed a survey prior to viewing genomic test results, of which 1002 participants provided data on smoking behaviors 6 months after receiving results. Results: At baseline, 64% of participants were never smokers, 29% were former smokers, and 7% were current smokers. Most baseline current smokers were very interested in genetic risk results for lung cancer (65%) and heart disease (72%). For lung cancer, this interest was significantly greater than former (50% very interested) and never smokers (37% very interested) (p < .0001). Even though participants were interested in smoking-related disease genetic risks, 96% reported the same smoking status at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Importantly, only 1% (n = 13/916) of former and never smokers became current smokers at 6 months and 22% (n = 14/64) of current smokers reported quitting. Conclusions: Overall, smokers show a high level of interest in genetic risks of smoking-related illnesses. The experience of receiving direct-to-consumer genomic health risks does not appear to have obvious harms related to smoking behaviors, with some potential benefits. Implications: In the setting of ongoing controversy surrounding direct-to-consumer genomic testing, this study provides evidence that consumers are interested in genetic risk results of smokingrelated diseases. Receiving genomic testing results does not lead to smoking initiation among never smokers or reinitiation among former smokers and may be associated with a higher quit rate among current smokers at 6-month follow-up than the general population. These findings ease concerns that direct-to-consumer genomic testing could lead to false reassurance and unhealthy behaviors related to smoking.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2273-2277
Number of pages5
JournalNicotine and Tobacco Research
Volume18
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2016

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Health Behavior
Smoking
Lung Neoplasms
Inborn Genetic Diseases
Genomics
Heart Diseases

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Olfson, E., Hartz, S., Carere, D. A., Green, R. C., Roberts, J. S., Bierut, L. J., ... PGen Study Group (2016). Implications of personal genomic testing for health behaviors: The case of smoking. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 18(12), 2273-2277. https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntw168

Implications of personal genomic testing for health behaviors : The case of smoking. / Olfson, Emily; Hartz, Sarah; Carere, Deanna Alexis; Green, Robert C.; Roberts, J. Scott; Bierut, Laura J.; Christensen, Kurt D.; Helm, Margaret H.; Krier, Joel B.; Lehmann, Lisa S.; Schonman, Erica; Kraft, Peter; Couper, Mick P.; Uhlmann, Wendy R.; Le, Lan Q.; Ruffin, Mack T.; Ostergren, Jenny; Kiefer, Amy K.; Mountain, Joanna L.; Braunstein, Glenn D.; Crawford, Scott D.; Chen, Clara A.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Wang, Catharine; Gray, Stacy W.; Koenig, Barbara A.; Kaphingst, Kimberly; Gollust, Sarah; PGen Study Group.

In: Nicotine and Tobacco Research, Vol. 18, No. 12, 01.01.2016, p. 2273-2277.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Olfson, E, Hartz, S, Carere, DA, Green, RC, Roberts, JS, Bierut, LJ, Christensen, KD, Helm, MH, Krier, JB, Lehmann, LS, Schonman, E, Kraft, P, Couper, MP, Uhlmann, WR, Le, LQ, Ruffin, MT, Ostergren, J, Kiefer, AK, Mountain, JL, Braunstein, GD, Crawford, SD, Chen, CA, Cupples, LA, Wang, C, Gray, SW, Koenig, BA, Kaphingst, K, Gollust, S & PGen Study Group 2016, 'Implications of personal genomic testing for health behaviors: The case of smoking', Nicotine and Tobacco Research, vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 2273-2277. https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntw168
Olfson E, Hartz S, Carere DA, Green RC, Roberts JS, Bierut LJ et al. Implications of personal genomic testing for health behaviors: The case of smoking. Nicotine and Tobacco Research. 2016 Jan 1;18(12):2273-2277. https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntw168
Olfson, Emily ; Hartz, Sarah ; Carere, Deanna Alexis ; Green, Robert C. ; Roberts, J. Scott ; Bierut, Laura J. ; Christensen, Kurt D. ; Helm, Margaret H. ; Krier, Joel B. ; Lehmann, Lisa S. ; Schonman, Erica ; Kraft, Peter ; Couper, Mick P. ; Uhlmann, Wendy R. ; Le, Lan Q. ; Ruffin, Mack T. ; Ostergren, Jenny ; Kiefer, Amy K. ; Mountain, Joanna L. ; Braunstein, Glenn D. ; Crawford, Scott D. ; Chen, Clara A. ; Cupples, L. Adrienne ; Wang, Catharine ; Gray, Stacy W. ; Koenig, Barbara A. ; Kaphingst, Kimberly ; Gollust, Sarah ; PGen Study Group. / Implications of personal genomic testing for health behaviors : The case of smoking. In: Nicotine and Tobacco Research. 2016 ; Vol. 18, No. 12. pp. 2273-2277.
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abstract = "Introduction: Direct-to-consumer personal genomic testing has the potential to influence health behaviors, including smoking. Critics of this testing highlight limited evidence to support positive behavioral benefits and caution that genomic results may provide false reassurance, leading to unhealthy behaviors. This study investigates interest in genetic risks of smoking-related diseases and changes in smoking behaviors among genomic testing consumers. Methods: From 2012 to 2013, a longitudinal series of web surveys was conducted. A total of 1464 customers of 23andMe and Pathway Genomics completed a survey prior to viewing genomic test results, of which 1002 participants provided data on smoking behaviors 6 months after receiving results. Results: At baseline, 64{\%} of participants were never smokers, 29{\%} were former smokers, and 7{\%} were current smokers. Most baseline current smokers were very interested in genetic risk results for lung cancer (65{\%}) and heart disease (72{\%}). For lung cancer, this interest was significantly greater than former (50{\%} very interested) and never smokers (37{\%} very interested) (p < .0001). Even though participants were interested in smoking-related disease genetic risks, 96{\%} reported the same smoking status at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Importantly, only 1{\%} (n = 13/916) of former and never smokers became current smokers at 6 months and 22{\%} (n = 14/64) of current smokers reported quitting. Conclusions: Overall, smokers show a high level of interest in genetic risks of smoking-related illnesses. The experience of receiving direct-to-consumer genomic health risks does not appear to have obvious harms related to smoking behaviors, with some potential benefits. Implications: In the setting of ongoing controversy surrounding direct-to-consumer genomic testing, this study provides evidence that consumers are interested in genetic risk results of smokingrelated diseases. Receiving genomic testing results does not lead to smoking initiation among never smokers or reinitiation among former smokers and may be associated with a higher quit rate among current smokers at 6-month follow-up than the general population. These findings ease concerns that direct-to-consumer genomic testing could lead to false reassurance and unhealthy behaviors related to smoking.",
author = "Emily Olfson and Sarah Hartz and Carere, {Deanna Alexis} and Green, {Robert C.} and Roberts, {J. Scott} and Bierut, {Laura J.} and Christensen, {Kurt D.} and Helm, {Margaret H.} and Krier, {Joel B.} and Lehmann, {Lisa S.} and Erica Schonman and Peter Kraft and Couper, {Mick P.} and Uhlmann, {Wendy R.} and Le, {Lan Q.} and Ruffin, {Mack T.} and Jenny Ostergren and Kiefer, {Amy K.} and Mountain, {Joanna L.} and Braunstein, {Glenn D.} and Crawford, {Scott D.} and Chen, {Clara A.} and Cupples, {L. Adrienne} and Catharine Wang and Gray, {Stacy W.} and Koenig, {Barbara A.} and Kimberly Kaphingst and Sarah Gollust and {PGen Study Group}",
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T2 - The case of smoking

AU - Olfson, Emily

AU - Hartz, Sarah

AU - Carere, Deanna Alexis

AU - Green, Robert C.

AU - Roberts, J. Scott

AU - Bierut, Laura J.

AU - Christensen, Kurt D.

AU - Helm, Margaret H.

AU - Krier, Joel B.

AU - Lehmann, Lisa S.

AU - Schonman, Erica

AU - Kraft, Peter

AU - Couper, Mick P.

AU - Uhlmann, Wendy R.

AU - Le, Lan Q.

AU - Ruffin, Mack T.

AU - Ostergren, Jenny

AU - Kiefer, Amy K.

AU - Mountain, Joanna L.

AU - Braunstein, Glenn D.

AU - Crawford, Scott D.

AU - Chen, Clara A.

AU - Cupples, L. Adrienne

AU - Wang, Catharine

AU - Gray, Stacy W.

AU - Koenig, Barbara A.

AU - Kaphingst, Kimberly

AU - Gollust, Sarah

AU - PGen Study Group

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N2 - Introduction: Direct-to-consumer personal genomic testing has the potential to influence health behaviors, including smoking. Critics of this testing highlight limited evidence to support positive behavioral benefits and caution that genomic results may provide false reassurance, leading to unhealthy behaviors. This study investigates interest in genetic risks of smoking-related diseases and changes in smoking behaviors among genomic testing consumers. Methods: From 2012 to 2013, a longitudinal series of web surveys was conducted. A total of 1464 customers of 23andMe and Pathway Genomics completed a survey prior to viewing genomic test results, of which 1002 participants provided data on smoking behaviors 6 months after receiving results. Results: At baseline, 64% of participants were never smokers, 29% were former smokers, and 7% were current smokers. Most baseline current smokers were very interested in genetic risk results for lung cancer (65%) and heart disease (72%). For lung cancer, this interest was significantly greater than former (50% very interested) and never smokers (37% very interested) (p < .0001). Even though participants were interested in smoking-related disease genetic risks, 96% reported the same smoking status at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Importantly, only 1% (n = 13/916) of former and never smokers became current smokers at 6 months and 22% (n = 14/64) of current smokers reported quitting. Conclusions: Overall, smokers show a high level of interest in genetic risks of smoking-related illnesses. The experience of receiving direct-to-consumer genomic health risks does not appear to have obvious harms related to smoking behaviors, with some potential benefits. Implications: In the setting of ongoing controversy surrounding direct-to-consumer genomic testing, this study provides evidence that consumers are interested in genetic risk results of smokingrelated diseases. Receiving genomic testing results does not lead to smoking initiation among never smokers or reinitiation among former smokers and may be associated with a higher quit rate among current smokers at 6-month follow-up than the general population. These findings ease concerns that direct-to-consumer genomic testing could lead to false reassurance and unhealthy behaviors related to smoking.

AB - Introduction: Direct-to-consumer personal genomic testing has the potential to influence health behaviors, including smoking. Critics of this testing highlight limited evidence to support positive behavioral benefits and caution that genomic results may provide false reassurance, leading to unhealthy behaviors. This study investigates interest in genetic risks of smoking-related diseases and changes in smoking behaviors among genomic testing consumers. Methods: From 2012 to 2013, a longitudinal series of web surveys was conducted. A total of 1464 customers of 23andMe and Pathway Genomics completed a survey prior to viewing genomic test results, of which 1002 participants provided data on smoking behaviors 6 months after receiving results. Results: At baseline, 64% of participants were never smokers, 29% were former smokers, and 7% were current smokers. Most baseline current smokers were very interested in genetic risk results for lung cancer (65%) and heart disease (72%). For lung cancer, this interest was significantly greater than former (50% very interested) and never smokers (37% very interested) (p < .0001). Even though participants were interested in smoking-related disease genetic risks, 96% reported the same smoking status at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Importantly, only 1% (n = 13/916) of former and never smokers became current smokers at 6 months and 22% (n = 14/64) of current smokers reported quitting. Conclusions: Overall, smokers show a high level of interest in genetic risks of smoking-related illnesses. The experience of receiving direct-to-consumer genomic health risks does not appear to have obvious harms related to smoking behaviors, with some potential benefits. Implications: In the setting of ongoing controversy surrounding direct-to-consumer genomic testing, this study provides evidence that consumers are interested in genetic risk results of smokingrelated diseases. Receiving genomic testing results does not lead to smoking initiation among never smokers or reinitiation among former smokers and may be associated with a higher quit rate among current smokers at 6-month follow-up than the general population. These findings ease concerns that direct-to-consumer genomic testing could lead to false reassurance and unhealthy behaviors related to smoking.

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