Implementing Chronic Care Model Treatments for Cigarette Dependence in Community Mental Health Clinics

Sandra J. Japuntich, Melissa Adkins-Hempel, Carina Lundtvedt, Sara J. Becker, Sarah A. Helseth, Steven S. Fu, Jennifer Tidey, A. Eden Evins, Rebekah Pratt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: Tobacco use is rarely addressed in community mental healthcare settings, despite its high prevalence among people with serious mental illness. The aim of the current study was to gather stakeholder feedback regarding the feasibility of chronic care management strategies for tobacco dependence in community mental health centers (CMHCs). Chronic care strategies evaluated included the 5 As (Ask about tobacco use, Advise users of tobacco to quit, Assess interest in cessation, Assist with cessation, and Arrange for follow-up) and proactive telephone outreach (reaching out to all users of tobacco to offer connection to tobacco cessation treatment). Methods: Using a semi-structured interview guide informed by the Practical Robust Implementation and Sustainability Model, we conducted individual semi-structured interviews with providers, leaders, and clients across two CMHCs. Our objectives were to capture their attitudes toward smoking cessation treatment, two chronic care model interventions (i.e., proactive outreach, the 5 As), and to determine the infrastructure needed to implement such interventions in their CMHCs. Thematic analysis was conducted by two independent coders to uncover pertinent themes. Results: Participants (n = 20) included nine providers, six leaders, and five clients. Thematic analysis revealed three major themes: (1) characteristics of recipients, (2) characteristics of the intervention, and (3) infrastructure needed for implementation and sustainability. Providers, leaders, and clients all reported that tobacco cessation treatment was rarely provided in CMHCs and expressed an interest in such treatments becoming more available. The 5 As and proactive outreach were viewed as feasible and acceptable to deliver and receive. Providers, leaders, and clients wanted support to connect clients with smoking cessation treatment. Providers and leaders requested a range of implementation supports, including didactic trainings, decision aids, performance feedback, and coaching on evidence-based tobacco cessation treatments for people with serious mental illness. Clients requested tobacco cessation resources, such as a cessation counseling provided at the CMHC and prescriptions for cessation medication. Conclusions: CMHC providers, leaders, and clients are interested in making tobacco cessation services more widely accessible and available. The feedback gathered in this study can be used to inform the delivery and implementation of guideline-adherent tobacco dependence care in CMHCs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)153-164
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Dual Diagnosis
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We gratefully acknowledge funding from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, R34 DA046078-01. K23DA048062 covered the time of Dr. Helseth. This paper was previously presented at the 42nd annual meeting of the Society for Behavioral Medicine Annual Meeting, April 12–16, 2021 (virtual meeting). We would like to thank the community mental health centers and site leaders for their participation in this study. The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the position or policy of the Department of Veterans Affairs or the United States government.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


  • Community mental health center
  • chronic care model
  • integrated care
  • proactive outreach
  • serious mental illness
  • smoking
  • tobacco


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