Implementation of a direct observation and feedback tool using an interprofessional approach: a pilot study

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Primary care trainees must learn how to communicate effectively with patients during brief outpatient encounters, and direct observation and feedback is necessary to improve these skills. At the same time, programs are seeking more interprofessional learning opportunities for skills that transcend professions. We sought to assess the feasibility of implementing a direct observation tool, the Patient Centered Observation Form (PCOF), for communication training across three professions at the graduate level. The PCOF was introduced to trainees at an interprofessional workshop, while faculty completed PCOF training online or in person. Following use of the PCOF, we surveyed participants to determine if using the PCOF increased a) trainee-reported confidence in providing patient-centered communication, and b) faculty-reported confidence in giving feedback about patient-centered communication. The PCOF appears to be a useful adjunct to standard precepting for teaching patient-centered communication skills, extending beyond medical residents to pharmacy residents and less so, to advanced practice nursing students. In addition, PCOF training and implementation can successfully occur simultaneously across disciplines, leveraging resources and encouraging interprofessional learning.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)641-644
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of interprofessional care
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Primary Care Faculty Development Initiative, awarded February 2013. PI: Taj Mustapha. Collaborators: Emily Borman-Shoap, Keri Hager, Mary Dierich, Patricia Adam, Heather Thompson Buum. This national grant program supported by HRSA and the Macy Foundation, conducted by Oregon Health & Science University, funded the initial faculty development and train-the-trainer sessions.University of Minnesota Division of General Internal Medicine Pilot Grant, awarded January 2016. PI: Heather Thompson Buum. Collaborators: Taj Mustapha, Emily Borman-Shoap, Keri Hager, Mary Dierich, Patricia Adam. This local grant program funded the Patient Centered Observation Form (PCOF) Implementation including materials and a project coordinator.University of Minnesota Herz Faculty Development Grant, awarded October 2015. PI: Patricia Adam. Collaborators: Heather Thompson Buum, Emily Borman-Shoap, Keri Hager, Mary Dierich. This local grant program allowed us to bring in the creator of the Patient Centered Observation Form (PCOF), Dr. Larry Mauksch, for on-site training in the use of the tool.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


  • Interprofessional education
  • communication
  • interprofessional collaboration
  • patient centered practice
  • surveys

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article


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