Endoglin is a coreceptor of the TGF-β superfamily predominantly expressed on the vascular endothelium and selective subsets of immune cells. We previously demonstrated that Endoglin heterozygous (Eng +/-) mice subjected to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) developed persistent gut inflammation and pathological angiogenesis. We now report that colitic Eng +/- mice have low colonic levels of active TGF-β1, which was associated with reduced expression of thrombospondin-1, an angiostatic factor known to activate TGF-β1. We also demonstrate dysregulated expression of BMPER and follistatin, which are extracellular regulators of the TGF-β superfamily that modulate angiogenesis and inflammation. Heightened colonic levels of the neutrophil chemoattractant and proangiogenic factor, CXCL1, were also observed in DSS-treated Eng +/- mice. Interestingly, despite increased macrophage and neutrophil infiltration, a gut-specific reduction in expression of the key phagocytic respiratory burst enzymes, NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox-2) and myeloperoxidase, was seen in Eng +/- mice undergoing persistent inflammation. Taken together, these findings suggest that endoglin is required for TGF-β superfamily mediated resolution of inflammation and fully functional myeloid cells.