Impact of the 2009 WIC Food Package Changes on Maternal Dietary Quality

Megan M. Oberle, Rebecca Freese, Justine Shults, Virginia A. Stallings, Senbagam Virudachalam

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The impact of the 2009 changes to the Special Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) on mothers receiving WIC benefits was evaluated using repeated, cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2003–2006 (231 participants) and 2011–2014 (81 participants). Linear regression models assessed maternal dietary quality (measured by Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores) over time. After the 2009 changes, there was no significant change in total HEI-2010 scores among maternal WIC participants. The 2009 WIC changes may have been inadequate to address the financial and cultural barriers to a healthful diet faced by low-income mothers of young children.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)739-752
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Hunger and Environmental Nutrition
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 1 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
At the time this study was conducted, Dr. Oberle was a Pediatric Endocrinology Fellow at Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia and was supported by a National Institutes of Health institutional training grant (T32DK063688). This research was supported by the National Institutes of Health’s National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, grant UL1TR002494. We are grateful to Gabriella John, MS for her assistance with converting NHANES data into HEI-2010 scores.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


  • HEI-2010 score
  • WIC
  • dietary quality
  • mothers


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