The authors examined the effects of positive interdependence vs. no interdependence on students' academic achievement. Participants included 151 U.S. college students who took weekly electronic quizzes on which they could interact with group mates in a chat room. In the positive interdependence condition, 1 member was chosen at random, and his or her score was given to all members of the group. In the no-interdependence condition, each group member received his or her own score on each quiz. Achievement was measured by biweekly examinations that students took by themselves and that produced their own independent scores. Students in the positive-interdependence condition engaged in significantly more interaction and more promotive interaction while taking the electronic quizzes and achieved higher scores on the subsequent examinations taken individually.
- Electronic quizzes