Impact of Genetic Variants in the Nicotine Metabolism Pathway on Nicotine Metabolite Levels in Smokers

Yadira X. Perez-Paramo, Christy J.W. Watson, Gang Chen, Claire E. Thomas, Jennifer Adams-Haduch, Renwei Wang, Chiea Chuen Khor, Woon Puay Koh, Heather H. Nelson, Jian Min Yuan, Philip Lazarus

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BACKGROUND: Nicotine metabolism is a major factor in nicotine dependence, with approximately 70% to 80% of nicotine metabolized to cotinine in Caucasians. Cotinine formation is catalyzed primarily by CYP2A6, which also converts cotinine to trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (3HC). The goal of the present study was to examine the effects of CYP2A6 deficiency on nicotine metabolism profiles in vivo and the importance of genetic variants in nicotine-metabolizing enzyme genes on urinary nicotine metabolites levels. METHODS: Urine samples from 722 smokers who participated in the Singapore Chinese Health Study were analyzed using UPLC-MS/MS to detect nicotine and eight of its urinary metabolites, and a total of 58 variants in 12 genes involved in nicotine metabolism were investigated in 475 of these subjects with informative genotyping data. RESULTS: Urine samples stratified by the ratio of 3HC/cotinine exhibited a 7-fold increase in nicotine-N'-oxide, a 6-fold increase in nicotine-Glucuronide (Gluc), and a 5-fold decrease in 3HC-Gluc when comparing the lower versus upper 3HC/cotinine ventiles. Significant (P < 0.0001) associations were observed between functional metabolizing enzyme genotypes and levels of various urinary nicotine metabolites, including CYP2A6 genotype and levels of nicotine, nicotine-Gluc, nicotine-N'-oxide and 3HC, UGT2B10 genotype and levels of cotinine, nicotine-Gluc and cotinine-Gluc, UGT2B17 genotype and levels of 3HC-Gluc, FMO3 genotype and levels of nicotine-N'-oxide, and CYP2B6 genotype and levels of nicotine-N'-oxide and 4-hydroxy-4-(3-pyridyl)-butanoic acid. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that several pathways are important in nicotine metabolism. IMPACT: Genotype differences in several nicotine-metabolizing enzyme pathways may potentially lead to differences in nicotine dependence and smoking behavior and cessation.

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©2022 The Authors; Published by the American Association for Cancer Research.


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