Impact of Enhanced Anchored Instruction in Inclusive Math Classrooms

Brian A. Bottge, Michael D. Toland, Linda Gassaway, Mark Butler, Sam Choo, Ann Katherine Griffen, Xin ma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

57 Scopus citations


The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics will place more pressure on special education and math teachers to raise the skill levels of all students, especially those with disabilities in math (MD). The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of enhanced anchored instruction (EAI) on students with and without MD in co-taught general education classrooms. Results showed that students in the EAI condition improved their performance on math skills contained in several of the standards. Effect sizes were especially large for students with MD when the special education teacher more actively participated in the instructional activities with the math teacher. Classroom observations provided examples of how teachers can work together to benefit students in inclusive math settings.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)158-175
Number of pages18
JournalExceptional children
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 2015
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The research reported in this article was supported by a grant from the U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences (PR Number H324A090179). Any opinions, findings, or conclusions are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the supporting agency.


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