Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical sibling bone marrow transplantation is an effective treatment for Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. However, most children with this disease lack such donors and many patients receive transplants from alternative donors. This study compared outcomes of HLA-identical sibling, other related donor, and unrelated donor transplantation for Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. The outcome of 170 transplantations for Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, from 1968 to 1996, reported to the International Bone Marrow Transplant Registry and/or National Marrow Donor Program were assessed. Fifty-five were from HLA-identical sibling donors, 48 from other relatives, and 67 from unrelated donors. Multivariate proportional hazards regression was used to compare outcome by donor type and identify other prognostic factors. Most transplant recipients were younger than 5 years (79%), had a pretransplantation performance score greater than or equal to 90% (63%), received pretransplantation preparative regimens without radiation (82%), and had non-T-cell-depleted grafts (77%). Eighty percent received their transplant after 1986. The 5-year probability of survival (95% confidence interval) for all subjects was 70% (63%-77%). Probabilities differed by donor type: 87% (74%-93%) with HLA-identical sibling donors, 52% (37%-65%) with other related donors, and 71% (58%-80%) with unrelated donors (P = .0006). Multivariate analysis indicated significantly lower survival using related donors other than HLA-identical siblings (P = .0004) or unrelated donors in boys older than 5 years (P = .0001), compared to HLA-identical sibling transplants. Boys receiving an unrelated donor transplant before age 5 had survivals similar to those receiving HLA-identical sibling transplants. The best transplantation outcomes in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome are achieved with HLA-identical sibling donors. Equivalent survivals are possible with unrelated donors in young children.