Habitat disturbance and anthropogenic change are globally associated with extinctions and invasive species introductions. Less understood is the impact of environmental change on the parasites harbored by endangered, extinct, and introduced species. To improve our understanding of the impacts of anthropogenic disturbance on such host–parasite interactions, we investigated an invasive trypanosome (Trypanosoma lewisi). We screened 348 individual small mammals, representing 26 species, from both forested and non-forested habitats in rural Uganda. Using microscopy and PCR, we identified 18% of individuals (order Rodentia) as positive for trypanosomes. Further phylogenetic analyses revealed two trypanosomes circulating—T. lewisi and T. varani. T. lewisi was found in seven species both native and invasive, while T. varani was identified in only three native forest species. The lack of T. varani in non-forested habitats suggests that it is a natural parasite of forest-dwelling rodents. Our findings suggest that anthropogenic disturbance may lead to spillover of an invasive parasite (T. lewisi) from non-native to native species, and lead to local co-extinction of a native parasite (T. varani) and native forest-dwelling hosts.
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© 2016, International Association for Ecology and Health.
Copyright 2018 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.
- Kibale National Park
- Trypanosoma lewisi
- Trypanosoma varani
- forest fragment
- small mammals