The detailed chemical composition of particulate matter emissions from four non-smoking gasoline powered motor vehicles were measured using three different driving conditions: a cold-cold start Unified Driving Cycle (UDC), a hot UDC, and a steady state cruise driving cycle. The cold-cold start UDC tests were performed with a cold-cold start temperature of 0°C, which is significantly lower than the 24°C cold start temperature widely used for motor vehicle testing. Each vehicle was operated over three cold-cold UDC cycles, three hot UDC cycles, and a steady state driving cycle comprised of 2 hours at 100 kilometers per hour (kph) plus 1 hour at 50 kph. Particulate matter emissions were characterized for elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), sulfate ions, nitrate ions, ammonium ions, and organic compounds using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). Mass emissions rates for the test vehicles using both the hot UDC and steady state driving cycles ranged from <0.1 to 1.3 mg km-1, while the average cold-cold UDC cycle emissions ranged from 1.0 to 7.1 mg km-1 for the four vehicles. The cold-cold start UDC emissions averaged 5-30 times higher than the hot start UDC emissions. EC was an important contributor to the particulate matter emissions for the cold-cold start UDC emissions. Speciation of the organic compounds in the particulate matter emissions demonstrates differences in the composition of the organic aerosol emissions for the different driving cycles. The results of the present study demonstrate the important impact of cold-cold start temperature and driving conditions.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work has been supported by Dr. James Eberhardt of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Offices of Heavy Vehicle Technologies and FreedomCAR Vehicle Technologies. Dr. Doug Lawson (NREL) was the project manager for the study.
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