Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses to subcellular antigens are enhanced when antigens are presented on cell-sized silica microbeads called large multivalent immunogens (LMIs). LMIs prepared with tumour cell membrane fragments have induced partial remissions in humans with melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. The purpose of this phase I study was to evaluate the safety of LMIs, prepared with autologous lymphoma cell membranes, along with subcutaneous interleukin 2 (IL-2) and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in dogs with untreated B-cell lymphoma. After lymph node excision and induction chemotherapy, five dogs were vaccinated with three weekly doses of LMI alone; five with LMI and subcutaneous IL-2 and five with LMI, IL-2 and GM-CSF. No significant toxicity was noted, treatment did not adversely affect disease-free interval and half of the dogs showed measurable delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions to intradermal challenge with LMI, suggesting specific cell-mediated immunity.
- Autologous vaccine
- Large multivalent immunogen