Immunotherapy for Bladder Cancer: Latest Advances and Ongoing Clinical Trials

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


For nearly 50 years, immunotherapy has been used in patients with bladder cancer in the form of Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), which is still the first-line therapy for non-muscle invasive disease. However, the remarkable results obtained with checkpoint inhibitor drugs, including Pembrolizumab and Atezolizumab, have fueled the quest to optimize these and other forms of immunotherapy for both non-muscle invasive as well as advanced bladder cancer. In this review we summarize the current state of the rapidly evolving field of immunotherapy in bladder cancer highlighting novel approaches and ongoing trials in this exciting area of research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2226-2251
Number of pages26
JournalImmunological Investigations
Issue number8
StatePublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The author(s) reported there is no funding associated with the work featured in this article.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Author(s). Published with license by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


  • BCG
  • bladder cancer
  • checkpoint inhibitors
  • immune targeted therapy
  • immunotherapy

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Review
  • Journal Article


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