Immunotherapy Advances in Urothelial Carcinoma

Rohit K. Jain, Travis Snyders, Lakshminarayanan Nandgoapal, Rohan Garje, Yousef Zakharia, Shilpa Gupta

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Checkpoint inhibitors have monumentally transformed the treatment of metastatic urothelial carcinoma. While the efficacy and safety of the different agents are similar in platinum-refractory metastatic urothelial carcinoma, pembrolizumab is the only agent that was superior to chemotherapy in a randomized phase III trial. Pembrolizumab and atezolizumab are also approved as first-line therapies in cisplatin-ineligible metastatic urothelial carcinoma. Several immunotherapy trials are ongoing in non-metastatic setting to maximize responses upfront. Despite the promising responses with immunotherapy, majority of patients do not respond to monotherapy and combination approaches would be the path moving forward to maximize responses. In addition, novel therapies are needed for patients who progress on checkpoint inhibitors. There is still a lot to be done to better understand predictive biomarkers, optimal combination, and sequences to improve clinical outcomes in urothelial carcinoma.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number79
JournalCurrent treatment options in oncology
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 1 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.


  • Biomarkers
  • Checkpoint inhibitors
  • Immunotherapy
  • Urothelial carcinoma


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