Immunosuppressive potential of astemizole against LPS activated T cell proliferation and cytokine secretion in RAW macrophages, zebrafish larvae and mouse splenocytes by modulating MAPK signaling pathway

Rekha Jakhar, Chanchal Sharma, Souren Paul, Sun Chul Kang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

In this study, the immunomodulatory effects of astemizole (AST) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mediated T cell proliferation and induction of inflammation in RAW macrophages (in vitro), and zebrafish larvae (in vivo) were determined. AST significantly suppressed the phagocytic activity of macrophages (3.303 ± 0.115) and inhibited lysosomal enzyme secretion (13.27 ± 2.52) induced by LPS (100 ng/ml). Moreover, AST subdued the morphological deformities such as yolk sac edema (YSE) and spinal curvature curving (SC) by inhibiting ROS generation in zebrafish larvae 24 h after microinjection of LPS (0.5 mg/ml). AST was also shown to inhibit the production of the major cytokines TNF-α (150.8 ± 0.6), IL-1β (276.5 ± 1.6), and PGE2 (194.6 ± 0.6) pg/ml in RAW macrophages. It also subdued the ROS induced iNOS and COX-2 generated in response to LPS mediated immune dysfunctions in zebrafish larvae. These results suggested the immunosuppression effect of AST. Furthermore, induction of immune-suppression due to AST resulted in significant down-regulation of innate immunity directed by MAPK (p38, ERK and JNK), which was found to be associated with decreased production of acute inflammatory mediators both in vitro and in vivo. To confirm its activity, splenocytes were prepared using BALB/c mice and a mitogen activated splenocyte proliferation assay was also performed. Our findings suggest that AST has the ability to inhibit T cell proliferation and cytokine secretion both in vitro and in vivo by interfering with MAPK signaling pathway. Taken together, our results showed the potential of AST as a countermeasure to immune dysfunction and suggest its use as immunosuppressant compound in inflammatory disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)268-278
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Immunopharmacology
Volume65
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2018
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by a NRF Research Grant from the Republic of Korea in 2016.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 Elsevier B.V.

Keywords

  • Astemizole
  • Immunomodulatory
  • LPS
  • MAPK
  • RAW macrophages
  • Zebrafish larvae

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