In this study, the immunomodulatory effects of astemizole (AST) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mediated T cell proliferation and induction of inflammation in RAW macrophages (in vitro), and zebrafish larvae (in vivo) were determined. AST significantly suppressed the phagocytic activity of macrophages (3.303 ± 0.115) and inhibited lysosomal enzyme secretion (13.27 ± 2.52) induced by LPS (100 ng/ml). Moreover, AST subdued the morphological deformities such as yolk sac edema (YSE) and spinal curvature curving (SC) by inhibiting ROS generation in zebrafish larvae 24 h after microinjection of LPS (0.5 mg/ml). AST was also shown to inhibit the production of the major cytokines TNF-α (150.8 ± 0.6), IL-1β (276.5 ± 1.6), and PGE2 (194.6 ± 0.6) pg/ml in RAW macrophages. It also subdued the ROS induced iNOS and COX-2 generated in response to LPS mediated immune dysfunctions in zebrafish larvae. These results suggested the immunosuppression effect of AST. Furthermore, induction of immune-suppression due to AST resulted in significant down-regulation of innate immunity directed by MAPK (p38, ERK and JNK), which was found to be associated with decreased production of acute inflammatory mediators both in vitro and in vivo. To confirm its activity, splenocytes were prepared using BALB/c mice and a mitogen activated splenocyte proliferation assay was also performed. Our findings suggest that AST has the ability to inhibit T cell proliferation and cytokine secretion both in vitro and in vivo by interfering with MAPK signaling pathway. Taken together, our results showed the potential of AST as a countermeasure to immune dysfunction and suggest its use as immunosuppressant compound in inflammatory disease.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by a NRF Research Grant from the Republic of Korea in 2016.
© 2018 Elsevier B.V.
- RAW macrophages
- Zebrafish larvae