The immunopathology of five cases of spontaneous allograft rupture has been studies. All kidneys were edematous on exploration and routine histological sections showed interstitial edema and mononuclear cell infiltration characteristic of acute rejection. Immunofluorescence revealed, at most, scattered vascular deposition of IgM and mild mesangial C3 deposition. These findings are compared with findings in normal kidneys and kidneys which had been hyperacutely rejected. The normal kidney showed focal afferent arteriolar and proximal mesangial stalk deposition of C3 without IgM. The kidneys of patients with hyperacute rejection showed brilliant staining for fibrin and IgM in all arterial and arteriolar walls with lesser amounts of C3 and IgG; IgM and C3 were prominent in the glomerulus. These findings suggest that mechanisms other than circulating preformed antibodies are responsible for the pathogenesis of spontaneous allograft rupture.