Indirect immunofluorescence was used to investigate the tissue distribution of the major isoenzymes of Schistosoma mansoni glutathione S-transferase (GSH S-transferase). When polyclonal rabbit antisera against GSH S-transferase isoenzymes SmGST-1, -2, and -3 were applied to cryostat or plastic-embedded sections of fixed adult worms, a punctate pattern of enzyme distribution was observed that was restricted to the parenchyma. Labeling was much more pronounced in males than females, consistent with the biochemically determined distribution of these enzymes between the sexes. Intense immunolabeling was noted within the subectocytoplasmic core tissue of the tubercles of the male that appeared to be connected to deep parenchymal cells by immunoreactive cell processes. Immunofluorescence could be blocked completely by prior incubation of antisera with affinity-purified enzyme. Although schistosome GSH S-transferase have been reported to be protective antigens, no immunoreactivity was detected within or on the tegument, including the dorsal spines of the male. The lack of tegumental immunoreactivity was confirmed by immunoblotting of tegumental membrane preparations following SDS-PAGE. Muscle fibers, vitelline cells, and cecal epithelium also failed to react. The fact that the GSH S-transferases were not uniformly distributed among all parenchymal cells suggests the existence of subpopulations of parenchymal cells that are preferentially involved in the conjugation of electrophiles with glutathione.