Immuno-Oncology Approaches to Salvage Treatment for Non-muscle invasive Bladder Cancer

Niranjan J. Sathianathen, Subodh Regmi, Shilpa Gupta, Badrinath R. Konety

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article


This article provides a comprehensive review of the available data for immunotherapy being used as a salvage treatment in non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer. The literature demonstrates that the immune system has an important role in bladder cancer progression. Initial results from studies using checkpoint inhibitors, recombinant interferon-α2b protein, and oncolytic adenoviruses have shown promising responses with acceptable toxicities. However, the majority of the current data arises from small trials with limited follow-up. There are currently several ongoing studies in this setting, which we await completion, to increase our understanding of immunotherapy as a salvage treatment in non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)103-110
Number of pages8
JournalUrologic Clinics of North America
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2020



  • Bladder cancer
  • Immunotherapy
  • Non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer
  • Oncology

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Review

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