This article provides a comprehensive review of the available data for immunotherapy being used as a salvage treatment in non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer. The literature demonstrates that the immune system has an important role in bladder cancer progression. Initial results from studies using checkpoint inhibitors, recombinant interferon-α2b protein, and oncolytic adenoviruses have shown promising responses with acceptable toxicities. However, the majority of the current data arises from small trials with limited follow-up. There are currently several ongoing studies in this setting, which we await completion, to increase our understanding of immunotherapy as a salvage treatment in non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer.
- Bladder cancer
- Non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article