Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes are linked to host immune responses and may be affected by antiviral therapy. We investigated antibody and cytokine responses in ACTT-1 study participants enrolled at our center. We studied serum specimens from 19 hospitalized adults with COVID-19 randomized to treatment with remdesivir or placebo. We assessed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 antibody responses and identified cytokine signatures, using hierarchical clustering. We identified no clear immunologic trends attributable to remdesivir treatment. Seven participants were initially seronegative at study enrollment, and all 4 deaths occurred in this group with more recent symptom onset. We identified 3 dominant cytokine signatures, demonstrating different disease trajectories.
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