One hundred and sixty kindergarten and first-grade children listened to a narrative passage under one of five experimental conditions. Contrary to research with older children, prelearning imagery instructions did not facilitate subsequent recall of story information. Neither did concrete support in the form of intermittently provided pictures produce any recall gains for unpictured story information, even though such support had a marked positive effect on recall of pictured information. The pattern of several children's prose-learning studies, including the present one, is consistent with the hypothesis that the ability to apply a self-generated imagery strategy is developmentally based. Recent findings in the associative-learning literature lend additional support to this interpretation.