Illicit Substance Use in US Adults with Chronic Low Back Pain

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Study Design. A population-based cross-sectional survey. Objective. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of illicit drug use among US adults with and without chronic low back pain (cLBP). Summary of Background Data. Although addictive medications, such as opioids and benzodiazepines, are frequently prescribed to patients with cLBP, little is known about illicit drug use among Americans with cLBP. Methods. We used data from the back pain survey, administered to a representative sample of US adults aged 20 to 69 years (N = 5103) during the 2009 to 2010 cycle of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Participants with pain in the area between the lower posterior margin of the ribcage and the horizontal gluteal fold for at least 3 months were classified as having cLBP (N = 700). The drug use questionnaire was self-administered in a private setting, and included data on lifetime and current use of marijuana or hashish, cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamine. Chi-square tests, one-way analysis of variance, and logistic regression, adjusted for age, gender, race, and level of education, were used for comparisons. Results. About 46.5% of US adults with cLBP used marijuana versus 42% of those without cLBP [Adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.36, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.06-1.74]. About 22% versus 14% used cocaine (aOR 1.80, 95% CI 1.45-2.24), 9% versus 5% used methamphetamine (aOR 2.03, 95% CI 1.30-3.16), and 5% versus 2% used heroin (aOR 2.43, 95% CI 1.44-4.11). Subjects with cLBP who reported lifetime illicit drug use were more likely to have an active prescription for opioid analgesics than those without illicit drug use history: 22.5% versus 15.3%, P = 0.018. Conclusion. cLBP in community-based US adults was associated with higher odds of using marijuana, cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamine. Prescription opioid analgesic use was more common in cLBP sufferers with a history of illicit drug use. Level of Evidence: 2

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1372-1377
Number of pages6
JournalSpine
Volume41
Issue number17
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2016

Fingerprint

Low Back Pain
Street Drugs
Cannabis
Methamphetamine
Heroin
Odds Ratio
Cocaine
Confidence Intervals
Opioid Analgesics
Prescriptions
Nutrition Surveys
Chi-Square Distribution
Back Pain
Benzodiazepines
Analysis of Variance
Cross-Sectional Studies
Logistic Models
Education
Pain
Pharmaceutical Preparations

Keywords

  • chronic pain
  • cocaine
  • epidemiology
  • heroin
  • illicit drugs
  • low back pain
  • marijuana

Cite this

Illicit Substance Use in US Adults with Chronic Low Back Pain. / Shmagel, Anna K; Krebs, Erin E; Ensrud, Kristine E; Foley, Rob.

In: Spine, Vol. 41, No. 17, 01.09.2016, p. 1372-1377.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{f11ff37417444644bdb93e1ce4cf7dd0,
title = "Illicit Substance Use in US Adults with Chronic Low Back Pain",
abstract = "Study Design. A population-based cross-sectional survey. Objective. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of illicit drug use among US adults with and without chronic low back pain (cLBP). Summary of Background Data. Although addictive medications, such as opioids and benzodiazepines, are frequently prescribed to patients with cLBP, little is known about illicit drug use among Americans with cLBP. Methods. We used data from the back pain survey, administered to a representative sample of US adults aged 20 to 69 years (N = 5103) during the 2009 to 2010 cycle of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Participants with pain in the area between the lower posterior margin of the ribcage and the horizontal gluteal fold for at least 3 months were classified as having cLBP (N = 700). The drug use questionnaire was self-administered in a private setting, and included data on lifetime and current use of marijuana or hashish, cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamine. Chi-square tests, one-way analysis of variance, and logistic regression, adjusted for age, gender, race, and level of education, were used for comparisons. Results. About 46.5{\%} of US adults with cLBP used marijuana versus 42{\%} of those without cLBP [Adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.36, 95{\%} confidence interval (95{\%} CI) 1.06-1.74]. About 22{\%} versus 14{\%} used cocaine (aOR 1.80, 95{\%} CI 1.45-2.24), 9{\%} versus 5{\%} used methamphetamine (aOR 2.03, 95{\%} CI 1.30-3.16), and 5{\%} versus 2{\%} used heroin (aOR 2.43, 95{\%} CI 1.44-4.11). Subjects with cLBP who reported lifetime illicit drug use were more likely to have an active prescription for opioid analgesics than those without illicit drug use history: 22.5{\%} versus 15.3{\%}, P = 0.018. Conclusion. cLBP in community-based US adults was associated with higher odds of using marijuana, cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamine. Prescription opioid analgesic use was more common in cLBP sufferers with a history of illicit drug use. Level of Evidence: 2",
keywords = "chronic pain, cocaine, epidemiology, heroin, illicit drugs, low back pain, marijuana",
author = "Shmagel, {Anna K} and Krebs, {Erin E} and Ensrud, {Kristine E} and Rob Foley",
year = "2016",
month = "9",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1097/BRS.0000000000001702",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "41",
pages = "1372--1377",
journal = "Spine",
issn = "0362-2436",
publisher = "Lippincott Williams and Wilkins",
number = "17",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Illicit Substance Use in US Adults with Chronic Low Back Pain

AU - Shmagel, Anna K

AU - Krebs, Erin E

AU - Ensrud, Kristine E

AU - Foley, Rob

PY - 2016/9/1

Y1 - 2016/9/1

N2 - Study Design. A population-based cross-sectional survey. Objective. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of illicit drug use among US adults with and without chronic low back pain (cLBP). Summary of Background Data. Although addictive medications, such as opioids and benzodiazepines, are frequently prescribed to patients with cLBP, little is known about illicit drug use among Americans with cLBP. Methods. We used data from the back pain survey, administered to a representative sample of US adults aged 20 to 69 years (N = 5103) during the 2009 to 2010 cycle of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Participants with pain in the area between the lower posterior margin of the ribcage and the horizontal gluteal fold for at least 3 months were classified as having cLBP (N = 700). The drug use questionnaire was self-administered in a private setting, and included data on lifetime and current use of marijuana or hashish, cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamine. Chi-square tests, one-way analysis of variance, and logistic regression, adjusted for age, gender, race, and level of education, were used for comparisons. Results. About 46.5% of US adults with cLBP used marijuana versus 42% of those without cLBP [Adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.36, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.06-1.74]. About 22% versus 14% used cocaine (aOR 1.80, 95% CI 1.45-2.24), 9% versus 5% used methamphetamine (aOR 2.03, 95% CI 1.30-3.16), and 5% versus 2% used heroin (aOR 2.43, 95% CI 1.44-4.11). Subjects with cLBP who reported lifetime illicit drug use were more likely to have an active prescription for opioid analgesics than those without illicit drug use history: 22.5% versus 15.3%, P = 0.018. Conclusion. cLBP in community-based US adults was associated with higher odds of using marijuana, cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamine. Prescription opioid analgesic use was more common in cLBP sufferers with a history of illicit drug use. Level of Evidence: 2

AB - Study Design. A population-based cross-sectional survey. Objective. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of illicit drug use among US adults with and without chronic low back pain (cLBP). Summary of Background Data. Although addictive medications, such as opioids and benzodiazepines, are frequently prescribed to patients with cLBP, little is known about illicit drug use among Americans with cLBP. Methods. We used data from the back pain survey, administered to a representative sample of US adults aged 20 to 69 years (N = 5103) during the 2009 to 2010 cycle of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Participants with pain in the area between the lower posterior margin of the ribcage and the horizontal gluteal fold for at least 3 months were classified as having cLBP (N = 700). The drug use questionnaire was self-administered in a private setting, and included data on lifetime and current use of marijuana or hashish, cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamine. Chi-square tests, one-way analysis of variance, and logistic regression, adjusted for age, gender, race, and level of education, were used for comparisons. Results. About 46.5% of US adults with cLBP used marijuana versus 42% of those without cLBP [Adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.36, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.06-1.74]. About 22% versus 14% used cocaine (aOR 1.80, 95% CI 1.45-2.24), 9% versus 5% used methamphetamine (aOR 2.03, 95% CI 1.30-3.16), and 5% versus 2% used heroin (aOR 2.43, 95% CI 1.44-4.11). Subjects with cLBP who reported lifetime illicit drug use were more likely to have an active prescription for opioid analgesics than those without illicit drug use history: 22.5% versus 15.3%, P = 0.018. Conclusion. cLBP in community-based US adults was associated with higher odds of using marijuana, cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamine. Prescription opioid analgesic use was more common in cLBP sufferers with a history of illicit drug use. Level of Evidence: 2

KW - chronic pain

KW - cocaine

KW - epidemiology

KW - heroin

KW - illicit drugs

KW - low back pain

KW - marijuana

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84978976198&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84978976198&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1097/BRS.0000000000001702

DO - 10.1097/BRS.0000000000001702

M3 - Article

C2 - 27438382

AN - SCOPUS:84978976198

VL - 41

SP - 1372

EP - 1377

JO - Spine

JF - Spine

SN - 0362-2436

IS - 17

ER -