Receptor editing in the bone marrow (BM) serves to modify the Ag receptor specificity of immature self-reactive B cells, while anergy functionally silences self-reactive clones. Here, we demonstrate that anergic B cells in hen egg lysozyme Ig (HEL-Ig)/soluble HEL double transgenic mice show evidence of having undergone receptor editing in vivo, as demonstrated by the presence of elevated levels of endogenous κ light chain rearrangements in the BM and spleen. In an in vitro IL-7-driven BM culture system, HEL-Ig BM B cells grown in the presence of soluble HEL down-regulated surface IgM expression and also showed induction of new endogenous κ light chain rearrangements. Using a panel of soluble protein ligands with reduced affinity for the HEL-Ig receptor, the editing response was shown to correlate in a dose-dependent fashion with the strength of signaling through the B cell receptor. The finding that the level of B cell receptor cross-linking sufficient to induce anergy in B cells is also capable of engaging the machinery required for receptor editing suggests an intimate relationship between these two mechanisms in maintaining B cell tolerance.