If like produces like, do we like where we are going?

Kim M. Jones, Gardner Lepp, Kerry K. Fierke

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: This wisdom of experience commentary, written by three pharmacy educators of various backgrounds - PharmD, PhD, and EdD - will discuss potential contributors to the lack of professional advocacy exhibited by pharmacists. Authors will describe the issue using a “What? So What? Now What?” reflective model. Description: Students enrolled in 14 cohorts at two US colleges of pharmacy possess similar CliftonStrengths® top 5 themes with four themes most commonly reappearing in the top 5: Achiever, Learner, Harmony, and Restorative. These themes are housed in three of the four CliftonStrengths® domains: Executing, Relationship Building, and Strategic Thinking. Themes in the fourth domain, Influencing, were not represented in the top 5. Students from these same cohorts reported a self-identified weakness in their ability to Challenge the Process and Inspire a Shared Vision, two of five leadership practices described by Kouzes and Posner. Analysis/interpretation: The authors explore the possibility that the lack of evolution within the pharmacy profession is a result of the inherent tendencies of the typical student pharmacist and faculty member, coupled with the lack of curricular accreditation expectations focused on teaching and assessing professional advocacy. Conclusions: As educators at institutions poised to adopt new educational outcomes in our respective colleges and schools of pharmacy, institutions must take a holistic view of the profession and ensure the curricula prepare graduates to handle the many challenges awaiting them post-graduation. This may require pharmacy educators to make changes in their pedagogical approaches, addressing content that they are not inherently inclined to teach or practice. Implications: For pharmacy to continue to exist as a profession committed to patient advocacy, educational institutions must find meaningful ways to incorporate professional advocacy into the curriculum. Addressing professional advocacy is no longer an “and/or” option. Our profession is in crisis; we must ensure we are pointing graduates toward a sustainable professional future.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number102109
JournalCurrents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning
Issue number9
StateAccepted/In press - 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 Elsevier Inc.


  • Advocacy
  • CliftonStrengths® top 5 themes
  • Educational outcomes
  • Professional advocacy
  • Student leadership practices inventory


Dive into the research topics of 'If like produces like, do we like where we are going?'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this