Identity and Specialization as a Waterfowl Hunter

Susan A. Schroeder, David C. Fulton, Jeffrey S. Lawrence, Steven D. Cordts

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Like specialization, identity offers a way for differentiating and understanding recreationists and for gaining insight into the question of participant progression in an activity. We examined how identity related to measures of specialization among lapsed and current waterfowl hunters. Lapsed hunters included those who had purchased a Minnesota waterfowl stamp between 2000 and 2004, but not since this time. Current hunters had purchased a 2010 stamp. Results suggested that some waterfowl hunters specialize and progress toward a waterfowl-hunter identity. Others, however, either hunt for years but never specialize and identify as waterfowl hunters, or move toward but do not attain a waterfowl hunter identity. Individuals who achieve a waterfowl hunter identity may also later relinquish this identity. Identification was associated with increased specialization and resistance to change from a preference for waterfowl hunting. Individuals who had relinquished their identity retained social and knowledge-based commitment to waterfowl hunting, whereas attraction and centrality declined.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)218-234
Number of pages17
JournalLeisure Sciences
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 1 2013


  • recreation identity
  • recreation specialization
  • waterfowl hunters


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