Identifying Preschool Children for Higher Tiers of Language and Early Literacy Instruction Within a Response to Intervention Framework

Judith J. Carta, Charles R. Greenwood, Jane Atwater, Scott R. McConnell, Howard Goldstein, Ruth A. Kaminski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations

Abstract

Response to Intervention (RTI) or Multi-Tiered Systems of Support (MTSS) is beginning to be implemented in preschool programs to improve outcomes and to reduce the need for special education services. The proportions of children in programs identified as struggling learners through universal screening have important implications for the feasibility of these approaches as well as for the way programs might allocate resources and staff implementing tiered models of intervention. The expected proportions of children who might be identified for higher tiers of instructional support in pre-kindergarten settings are relatively unknown. The proportions of children who would have been identified for higher tiers of instructional language/literacy support when using three different universal screening measures are described. Participants were 659 children participating in the Center for Response to Intervention in Early Childhood (CRTIEC) Tier 1 Study. Results indicated that the proportions of children at Tier 2 and Tier 3 performance levels were higher for children in low-income eligibility programs and varied by program-level characteristics including numbers of English language learners and children with special needs, as well as the universal screening measure used. Implications of these findings suggest the importance of increased focus on early literacy and language in Tier 1 instruction in programs serving high proportions of children at risk as a means of preventing reading failure in future years.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)281-291
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Early Intervention
Volume36
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 4 2014

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This work was conducted by the Center for Response to Intervention in Early Childhood supported by Grant R324C080011 to the University of Kansas (Charles Greenwood and Judith Carta, Principal Investigators), from the National Center for Special Education Research, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 SAGE Publications

Copyright:
Copyright 2015 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

Keywords

  • Multi-Tiered Systems of Support
  • Response to Intervention
  • early literacy assessment
  • universal screening

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