Identifying indicators of behavior change: Insights from wildfire education programs

Martha C. Monroe, Shruti Agrawal, Pamela J. Jakes, Linda E. Kruger, Kristen C. Nelson, Victoria Sturtevant

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


Environmental educators are challenged to document behavior changes, because change rarely depends solely on outcomes of education programs, but on many factors. An analysis of 15 communities in the United States that have increased their preparedness for wildfire allowed us to explore how education programs encouraged individual and community change. Agency-sponsored adult educational programs helped communities change their philosophy about firefighting, pass ordinances that restrict individual property rights, and empower residents to reduce their wildfire risk. This article explores several outcomes of these programs and offers suggested indicators of change that might be useful for education program evaluation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)180-194
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Environmental Education
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jan 1 2013

Bibliographical note

Copyright 2013 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • adult education
  • behavior change
  • indicators
  • program evaluation
  • wildfire


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