Identification of weak links in production technology for bridging the canola yield-gap in Punjab, Pakistan

Shakeel Ahmad, Muhammad Ali Raza, Sajjad Hussain, Ghulam Abbas, Zartash Fatima, Mukhtar Ahmed, Muhammad Arif Goheer, Carol Jo Wilkerson, Axel Garcia Y Garcia, Gerrit Hoogenboom

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Understanding the reasons for the yield gap between potential and actual yield can provide insights for enhancing canola production by adapting measures for ensuring food security. The canola yield gap under different management practices (e.g. water, nitrogen, N- and sowing dates) was quantified using research trials that were conducted at on-station and historical data (1980-2016) and the CROPGRO-Canola model for Punjab, Pakistan. The integrated approach revealed that low inputs of N, the amount of irrigation, sowing date and the use of seeds from home stocks were the principal causes for a low yield. The CROPGRO-Canola model was able to simulate the canola yield from research trials (R2 = >0.90) and farm survey data (R2 = 0.63). The average yield gap between potential (YP), N-limited (YNL), water-limited (YWL), N- and water-limited (YNWL), and overall farmer field yield (YOFF) was 50, 46, 62 and 72%, respectively. The yield-gap with achievable yield (YA) for YNL, YWL, YNWL and YOFF was 34, 28, 49 and 63%, respectively. Overall, the results showed that a high canola yield for farmers' fields can be obtained by selecting appropriate varieties and sowing dates with N rate of 120 kg/ha and efficient irrigation management. However, further studies are necessary to fully comprehend the underlying causes for the low actual yield and the high yield variability of farmers' fields.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)241-253
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Agricultural Science
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 22 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Author(s). Published by Cambridge University Press.


  • Achievable yield
  • CSM-CROPGRO-Canola
  • crop simulation
  • oilseed
  • potential yield DSSAT


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