Identification of volatile compounds contributing to pennycress aroma

Peishan Luo, Gary Reineccius

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The volatile compounds inherent to wild-type pennycress seeds were determined using solvent-assisted flavour extraction (SAFE), combined with gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extraction dilution analysis (AEDA). In this research, twenty-nine aroma-active compounds were detected via GC-O. With the aid of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS), retention indices, aroma descriptors and standard chemical verification, ten volatile compounds were positively identified: 2,5−/2,6-dimethyl-3-methoxypyrazine (grassy), allyl isothiocyanate (mustard, horseradish, onion), hexanal (green), (E)-2-octenal (earthy), acetic acid (sour), (E)-2-nonenal (woody), 1-octanol (grassy), 1-nonanol (green), 2-methylbutanoic acid/3-methylbutanoic acid (cheesy) and phenethyl alcohol (rose-like). By matching odour descriptions, mass spectra and retention indices, seven additional volatile compounds were tentatively identified: 1-pentanol, octanal, (E)-2-penten-1-ol, (E)-2-heptenal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, (E, E)-3,5-octadien-2-one and pentanoic acid. These results provide an aroma analysis of pennycress, which can be useful in providing direction for pennycress breeding programs or tailored processing steps to eliminate the undesirable aroma components limiting the use as a food ingredient.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)375-386
Number of pages12
JournalFlavour and Fragrance Journal
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors wish to thank Drs. David Marks and Ratan Chopra for their advice and help on this work. Pennycress seeds of the wild-type and mutants were provided by Dr. Ratan Chopra for the analysis performed in this project.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


  • aroma
  • gas chromatography-olfactometry
  • pennycress
  • solvent-assisted flavour evaporation
  • volatiles


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