Identification of Residues Crucially Involved in the Binding of the Heme Moiety of Soluble Guanylate Cyclase

Peter M. Schmidt, Matthias Schramm, Henning Schröder, Frank Wunder, Johannes Peter Stasch

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145 Scopus citations


Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), a heterodimeric hemeprotein, is the only receptor for the biological messenger nitric oxide (NO) identified to date and is intimately involved in various signal transduction pathways. By using the recently discovered NO- and heme-independent sGC activator BAY 58-2667 and a novel cGMP reporter cell, we could distinguish between heme-containing and heme-free sGC in an intact cellular system. Using these novel tools, we identified the invariant amino acids tyrosine 135 and arginine 139 of the β1-subunit as crucially important for both the binding of the heme moiety and the activation of sGC by BAY 58-2667. The heme is displaced by BAY 58-2667 due to a competition between the carboxylic groups of this compound and the heme propionic acids for the identified residues tyrosine 135 and arginine 139. This displacement results in the release of the axial heme ligand histidine 105 and to the observed activation of sGC. Based on these findings we postulate a signal transmission triad composed of histidine 105, tyrosine 135, and arginine 139 responsible for the enzyme activation by this compound and probably also for transducing changes in heme status and porphyrin geometry upon NO binding into alterations of sGC catalytic activity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3025-3032
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jan 23 2004


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