Identification of persons at high risk for kidney disease via targeted screening: The NKF Kidney Early Evaluation Program

Wendy W. Brown, Allan Collins, Shu Cheng Chen, Karren King, Donald Molony, Monica R. Gannon, Gigi Politoski, William F. Keane

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

57 Scopus citations


Background. More than 340,000 individuals were receiving renal replacement therapy in the United States at the end of 1999; this number is projected to double by the year 2010. Almost half had a primary diagnosis of diabetes mellitus particularly type 2, and more than one quarter a primary diagnosis of hypertension. Studies have demonstrated effective maneuvers to prevent or delay the rate of progression of kidney disease, and decrease morbidity and mortality. The objective of early diagnosis is early detection of asymptomatic disease at a time when intervention has a reasonable potential to have a positive impact on outcome. Methods. In 1997, the National Kidney Foundation launched KEEP™ (Kidney Early Evaluation Program), a free community-based screening that targets first order relatives of persons with hypertension, diabetes or kidney disease, and those with a personal history of diabetes or hypertension. Results. Of the 889 individuals screened in the pilot study, 71.4% had at least one abnormality. The program includes an educational component and referral to a physician for follow-up of abnormal values. Conclusions. Targeted screenings are an effective means of identifying persons at risk for kidney disease, and can identify individuals at risk early enough in the course of their disease to allow for effective intervention.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S50-S55
JournalKidney International, Supplement
Issue number83
StatePublished - 2003


  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Diabetes
  • Early intervention
  • Hypertension
  • KEEP
  • Screening


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