Lysine succinylation is a newly identified protein posttranslational modification pathway present in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. However, succinylation substrates and regulatory enzyme(s) remain largely unknown, hindering the biological study of this modification. Here we report the identification of 2,580 bacterial lysine succinylation sites in 670 proteins and 2,803 lysine acetylation (Kac) sites in 782 proteins, representing the first lysine succinylation dataset and the largest Kac dataset in wild-type E. coli. We quantified dynamic changes of the lysine succinylation and Kac substrates in response to high glucose. Our data showed that high-glucose conditions led to more lysine-succinylated proteins and enhanced the abundance of succinyllysine peptides more significantly than Kac peptides, suggesting that glucose has a more profound effect on succinylation than on acetylation. We further identified CobB, a known Sir2-like bacterial lysine deacetylase, as the first prokaryotic desuccinylation enzyme. The identification of bacterial CobB as a bifunctional enzyme with lysine desuccinylation and deacetylation activities suggests that the eukaryotic Kac-regulatory enzymes may have enzymatic activities on various lysine acylations with very different structures. In addition, it is highly likely that lysine succinylation could have unique and more profound regulatory roles in cellular metabolism relative to lysine acetylation under some physiological conditions.