Various studies have demonstrated a role for E2F proteins in the control of transcription of genes involved in DNA replication, cell cycle progression, and cell fate determination. Although it is clear that the functions of the E2F proteins overlap, there is also evidence for specific roles for individual E2F proteins in the control of apoptosis and cell proliferation. Investigating protein interactions that might provide a mechanistic basis for the specificity of E2F function, we identified the E-box binding factor TFE3 as an E2F3-specific partner. We also show that this interaction is dependent on the marked box domain of E2F3. We provide evidence for a role for TFE3 in the synergistic activation of the p68 subunit gene of DNA polymerase α together with E2F3, again dependent on the E2F3 marked box domain. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that TFE3 and E2F3 were bound to the p68 promoter in vivo and that the interaction of either E2F3 or TFE3 with the promoter was facilitated by the presence of both proteins. In contrast, neither E2F1 nor E2F2 interacted with the p68 promoter under these conditions. We propose that the physical interaction of TFE3 and E2F3 facilitates transcriptional activation of the p68 gene and provides strong evidence for the specificity of E2F function.