Biochemical markers for cold-induced sweetening (CIS) resistance were tested for their stability over years and their use in selection of parents for crossing to achieve high selection efficiency in potato breeding programs. Two regulatory enzymes directly associated with reducing sugar (RS) accumulation during potato tubers cold storage were tested as a predictor for CIS resistance. These enzymes were studied in 33 potato clones from various breeding programs over four years. Clones with the presence of A-II isozymes of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGPase) and low activity of vacuolar acid invertase (VAcInv) enzyme had increased resistance to coldinduced sweetening (CIS). Depending on the levels of these enzymes, clones were divided into class A, class B and class C. Clones categorized as class A had average RS of 0.73 mg per g FW after six months at 5.5°C storage. Class B and C had average RS of 1.15 and 3.80 mg per g FW respectively. The enzyme activity was closely associated with RS accumulation over long-term cold storage. The biochemical markers were found to be stable over the years. Repeated-measure analysis showed 75% chance of maintaining class from one year to the next and a 25% chance of switching, No clone switched between class A and class C, even across all four years. Application of these biochemical markers can identify clones with CIS resistance early in the selection process. Biochemical markers were used to select parents for crossing and six families were established. Results showed that with both parents from class A, 95% of their offspring had desirable glucose levels and chip color, which dropped to 52% when one parent was from class A and other from class B. These results suggest that two regulatory enzymes, i.e., UGPase and VAcInv, can be used as stable prognostic biochemical markers for CIS resistance for precise parent selection resulting in progenies with significantly higher percentage of clones with acceptable processing quality.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
I (Sanjay K Gupta) received financial support from Cavendish Farms/Northern Plains Potato Growers Association and Minnesota Area II Potato Research and Promotion Council