Sera from porcine parvovirus (PPV)-infected swine fetuses immunoprecipitated and 84- to 86-kilodalton polypeptide in addition to the A and B viron structural proteins. This polypeptide, designated NS-1, was present in PPV-infected cell lysates but not in purified virions. Partial proteolysis mapping revealed that NS-1 was not related to the A and B viral structural proteins. All three proteins in infected cells were phosphorylated at serine residues, and NS-1 also contained phosphothreonine. From pulse-labeling experiments with either 32P(i) or [35S]methionine, NS-1 was found to first appear 5 to 7 h postinfection, whereas the viral structural polypeptides were first synthesized 9 to 11 h postinfection. Pulse-chase experiments revealed that NS-1 initially appeared as an 84-kilodalton protein and was subsequently structurally modified to forms of slower electrophoretic mobilities. The time of appearance of NS-1 after virus infection coincided with the initiation of viral DNS synthesis, suggesting that this polypeptide (and the modified forms thereof) may be involved in PPV replication.