Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a significant cause of cancer morbidity and mortality worldwide, with an incidence of up to 166 cases per 100 000 population. It arises in the skin, upper aerodigestive tract, lung, and cervix and affects more than 200 000 Americans each year. We report here that a microarray experiment comparing 41 SCC and 13 normal tissue specimens showed that Id2, a gene that controls the cell cycle, was significantly up-regulated in SCC. Enforced expression of Id2 in vitro stimulated the proliferation of SCC cells and up-regulated the transcription of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κ B) and cyclin D1. Enhancement of the NF-κ B activity with p65 significantly increased the cell proliferation and the transcription of cyclin D1, whereas inhibition of the NF-κ B activity with I kappa B alpha mutant (IκBαM) and pyrroline dithiocarbamate (PDTC) abrogated cell proliferation and transcription of cyclin D1. Furthermore, a mutated NF-κ B binding site in the cyclin D1 promoter fully abrogated the Id2-in duced transcription of cyclin D1. Taken together, these data indicate that Id2 induces SCC tumor growth and proliferation through the NF-κ B /cyclin D1 pathway.
- Cyclin D1
- Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma