Context: Our aim was to present a summary of the Second International Consultation on Bladder Cancer recommendations on the diagnosis and treatment options for non-muscle-invasive urothelial cancer of the bladder (NMIBC) using an evidence-based approach. Objective: To critically review the recent data on the management of NMIBC to arrive at a general consensus. Evidence acquisition: A detailed Medline analysis was performed for original articles addressing the treatment of NMIBC with regard to diagnosis, surgery, intravesical chemotherapy, and follow-up. Proceedings from the last 5 yr of major conferences were also searched. Evidence synthesis: The major findings are presented in an evidence-based fashion. We analyzed large retrospective and prospective studies. Conclusions: Urothelial cancer of the bladder staged Ta, T1, and carcinoma in situ (CIS), also indicated as NMIBC, poses greatly varying but uniformly demanding challenges to urologic care. On the one hand, the high recurrence rate and low progression rate with Ta low-grade demand risk-adapted treatment and surveillance to provide thorough care while minimizing treatment-related burden. On the other hand, the propensity of Ta high-grade, T1, and CIS to progress demands intense care and timely consideration of radical cystectomy.
- Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)
- Bladder cancer
- Intravesical chemotherapy
- Transurethral resection (TUR)