Prognostic biomarkers in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) are needed to improve risk assessment and help guide therapeutic and surveillance strategies to mitigate the risk of death from the procedure. We previously identified hypoalbuminemia at day +90 post-transplantation as an independent predictor of increased nonrelapse mortality (NRM) and inferior overall survival (OS) in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome who were treated with an allo-HCT. Here, we aim to confirm the prognostic significance of day +90 hypoalbuminemia in 783 patients, median age 52 years (range, 18 to 76), who received an allo-HCT for various hematologic malignancies and bone marrow failure syndromes. Multivariate analysis for NRM demonstrated a negative effect of low serum albumin levels (<3.0 versus 3.0 to 3.5 versus >3.5 g/dL) at day +90 post-transplantation (hazard ratios, 8.03 [95% CI, 3.59 to 17.97] versus 2.84 [95% CI, 1.59 to 5.08] versus reference; P <.0001). This was also the case for OS (hazard ratios, 6.86 [95% CI, 4.24 to 11.10] versus 1.52 [95% CI, 1.05 to 2.20] versus reference; P <.0001). Patients with hypoalbuminemia at day +90 post-transplantation are more likely to die from causes other than relapse, particularly infections. This large study confirms the ability of day +90 serum hypoalbuminemia to predict worse NRM and inferior OS. Presence of hypoalbuminemia at day +90 should drive a more rigorous real-time surveillance strategy considering the anticipated high-risk of NRM and poor survival in these patients. Future studies should consider incorporating day +90 serum albumin levels in prognostic models of NRM and OS.
- Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation
- Nonrelapse mortality
- Overall survival