Autoimmune diseases and cancer can be treated by influencing the immune system. Apo and nec cells are strong modulators of the immune system contributing to anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory responses, respectively. We examined which form of cell death was induced by HT and X-irradiation. Nec was the prominent form of cell death after combined treatment and the amount of dead cells was higher when exposing the cells to radiation before HT. Combined applications further led to an increased percentage of cells in a more radioresponsive G2 cell cycle phase. The danger signal HMGB1 is released when combining HT with radiation, a further hint that those treatments may induce inflammation and immune activation. We conclude that immune responses are appropriately adapted to the damage that has occurred and may contribute to anti-cancer immunity or chronic autoimmunity, respectively.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the European Commissions [NOTE (TPA4 FP6)], the ELAN Fond of the Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, and by the German Research Foundation [DFG HE 4490/3-1 and SFB 643 (project B5)].