Hypercalcemia and renal failure: Etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment

J. M. Kruger, C. A. Osborne, R. F. Nachreiner, K. R. Refsal

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

67 Scopus citations


Hypercalcemia is a frequent disorder of calcium metabolism in dogs and cats. Hypercalcemia-induced alterations in renal function and morphology are linked to many of the clinical manifestations observed in hypercalcemic patients. Since many renal effects induced by hypercalcemia are potentially reversible, early recognition and characterization of the problem facilitates rapid therapeutic intervention.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1417-1445
Number of pages29
JournalVeterinary Clinics of North America - Small Animal Practice
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1996

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