Part I of this review summarized the initial research on hygienic behaviour of honey bees, Apis mellifera. This early work that concerned hygienic behaviour as a mechanism of resistance to American foulbrood (AFB) has been the foundation for all subsequent research on hygienic behaviour. In Part II, research on hygienic behaviour in relation to other bee diseases and to Varroa jacobsoni and in Apis species and subspecies is reviewed. In addition, techniques to screen bee colonies for the behaviour are detailed, and practical applications of breeding bees for hygienic behaviour are given. A section on neuroethology demonstrates how modern neurobiological techniques are being used to detect the reasons for differences in responses of hygienic and non-hygienic bees to abnormal brood.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank A Collins, G Hunt, and B Oldroyd, W Rath, and H Shimanuki for their helpful comments on both parts of the mansucript. Research mentioned in this review was funded (to MS) by the National Science Foundation IBN-9722416, Agricultural Utilization Research Institute PRO-130 and 310, and USDA-SARE 97-COOP-1-4132, with matching funds from beekeeping associations in MN, WI, ND, SD, IA, and CA. This is contribution #98-1170011 from the Minnesota Agriculture Experiment Station.