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The ability to reproducibly synthesize thin films with precise composition and controlled structure is essential for fundamental study and mass production. Here, we demonstrate the hybrid molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth of epitaxial, single crystalline BaTiO3 films with different thicknesses on Nb-doped SrTiO3 substrates with atomically smooth surfaces. By combining scanning transmission electron microscopy, temperature-dependent high-resolution x-ray diffraction, reflection high-energy electron diffraction, and atomic force microscopy, we study the effect of growth conditions and the interplay between stoichiometry and epitaxial strain on the resulting structure. Furthermore, we demonstrate a close to bulk-like ferroelectric phase transition in thicker films and highlight the effect of strain on the phase transition temperature. This work establishes the hybrid MBE approach for the growth of heteroepitaxial BaTiO3 films on conducting substrates with scalable thickness and controlled stoichiometry.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was primarily supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-SC002021. The work also benefited from the Norwegian Centennial Chair Program (NOCC) and Vannevar Bush Faculty Fellowship. M.W. and E.Q. acknowledge funding from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) through a Reinhart Koselleck Project (No. 313454214). J.L. and A.K. acknowledge support for this work from the National Science Foundation (No. DMR-1350273). A.K. acknowledges support from an MIT Mathworks Engineering Fellowship. Parts of this work were carried out at the Characterization Facility, University of Minnesota, which receives partial support from the NSF through the MRSEC program under Award No. DMR-2011401, as well as the Analytical Instrumentation Facility (AIF) at North Carolina State University, which is supported by the State of North Carolina and the National Science Foundation (No. ECCS-1542015). AIF is a member of the North Carolina Research Triangle Nanotechnology Network (RTNN), a site in the National Nanotechnology Coordinated Infrastructure (NNCI). The authors declare no competing interests.
© 2021 Author(s).
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- 1 Active
9/1/20 → 8/31/26
Project: Research project