High-magnitude storm events such as Hurricane Sandy are powerful agents of geomorphic change in coastal marshes, potentially altering their surface elevation trajectories. But how do a storm’s impacts vary across a large region spanning a variety of wetland settings and storm exposures and intensities. We determined the short-term impacts of Hurricane Sandy at 223 surface elevation table–marker horizon stations in estuarine marshes located across the northeast region of the United States by comparing post-storm surface elevation change with pre-storm elevation trends. We hypothesized that the storm’s effect on marsh elevation trends would be influenced by position relative to landfall (right or left) and distance from landfall. The structural equation model presented predicts that marshes located to the left of landfall were more likely to experience an elevation gain greater than expected, and this positive deviation from pre-storm elevation trends tended to have a greater magnitude than those experiencing negative deviations (elevation loss), potentially due to greater sediment deposition. The magnitude of negative deviations from elevation change in marshes to the right of landfall was greater than for positive deviations, with a greater effect in marshes within 200 km of landfall, potentially from the extent and magnitude of storm surge. Overall, results provide an integrated picture of how storm characteristics combined with the local wetland setting are important to a storm’s impact on surface elevation, and that the surface elevation response can vary widely among sites across a region impacted by the same storm.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Anne Giblin, Hap Garritt, Karen Sundberg, and Samantha Bond of the Plum Island Estuary Long-Term Ecological Research site, Massachusetts (funded by National Science Foundation [NSF] Plum Island Ecosystems – Long Term Ecological Research [PIE-LTER] 1637630 and 1238212)
Shimon Anisfeld thanks the US Environmental Protection Agency and Connecticut Sea Grant for funding to install and monitor surface elevation table (SET) stations.
Alice Benzecry gratefully acknowledges the support of Fairleigh Dickinson University and Meadowlands Environmental Research Institute (MERI) for funding to install and monitor SET stations. http://meri.njmeadowlands.gov/projects/sea-level-rise-measurements/ .
Linda Blum - SET and marker horizon (MH) data collection is based upon work supported by the NSF under Grant Nos. BSR-8702333-06, DEB-9211772, DEB-9411974, DEB-0080381, DEB-0621014, and DEB-1237733. The Virginia Coast Reserve of the Nature Conservancy provided access to study sites. Database citation for this data set is Blum et al. ( 2017 ).
J. Patrick Megonigal - SET data from the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center was funded by the Department of Energy Terrestrial Ecosystem Science Program (DE-FG02-97ER62458), the US Geologic Survey (G10AC00675), the National Science Foundation Long-Term Research in Environmental Biology Program (DEB-0950080, DEB-1457100, DEB-1557009), Maryland Sea Grant (SA7528082, SA7528114-WW), and the Smithsonian Institution.
Nicole Maher and Adam Starke with The Nature Conservancy in NY acknowledge the generous financial support for this work from the Zegar Family Foundation and the Pritchard Charitable Trust.
William Reay - Maintenance and monitoring of Chesapeake Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (CBNERR) SET-MH stations is supported, in part, by NERR operational awards from the Office of Ocean and Coastal Management, NOAA.
J Grace and Glenn Guntenspergen were supported by the USGS Land Change Science and Ecosystems Programs. Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the US Government.
- Hurricane Sandy
- Marsh dynamics
- Storm impacts
- Structural equation modeling
- Surface elevation table
- marker horizon