The effect of diazepam on methadone self-administration was examined. Five methadone-maintained patients with a history of benzodiazepine abuse were recruited. Patients were stabilized on 80 mg of methadone per day. After stabilization patients participated in methadone self-administration sessions. During each session, 128 presses (fixed ratio 128) of 1 button delivered 10 ml of 0.054 mg/ml methadone solution. The same number of button presses on a 2nd button delivered 10 ml of vehicle. Forty-five min prior to the self-administration session, 0 (placebo), 5, 10, or 20 mg per 70 kg body weight diazepam was administered. Ratings of drug liking, goodness, strength, and high were collected 5, 30, 60, 90, and 150 min after the end of the self-administration session. Diazepam pretreatment significantly decreased the amount of methadone consumed. The 10- and 20-mg diazepam doses significantly increased reports of good, like, strong, and high.