Human-in-the-Loop Control: Applications and Categorization

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7 Scopus citations


I review the variety of human-in-the-loop control systems, identifying four architectural templates for the field: Human-in-the-plant, human-in-the-controller, human-machine control symbiosis, and humans-in-control-loops. Examples from numerous application sectors are used to illustrate the concepts and their evolution. A timeline of developments is presented. The paper concludes with a few suggestions, both taxonomic and technical, for future work.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)311-317
Number of pages7
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2020
Event3rd IFAC Workshop on Cyber-Physical and Human Systems, CPHS 2020 - Beijing, China
Duration: Dec 3 2020Dec 5 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Elsevier B.V.. All rights reserved.


  • Human-machine control
  • aerospace
  • automation
  • automotive
  • biomedical
  • building management
  • control applications
  • history of control
  • human-computer interaction
  • process industries


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