Human-in-the-Loop Control and Cyber–Physical–Human Systems: Applications and Categorization

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

5 Scopus citations


This chapter surveys and categorize the fields of human-in-the-loop control and cyber-physical-human systems (CPHS), with an emphasis on applications across a diversity of sectors, including aerospace, homes and buildings, robotics, healthcare, automotive, power systems, and the process industries. For human-in-the-loop control, four categories are highlighted in the form of architectural templates: human-in-the-plant, human-in-the-controller, human–machine control symbiosis, and humans-in-multiagent-loops. The progression of technology in each case is outlined, and a timeline of developments is presented. Two future visions, and the challenges behind them, are discussed: self- and human-driven cars in the urban environment and the mitigation of climate change with smart grids. Remarks are also included on the need for modeling human decision-making and on ethics for CPHS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationCyber–Physical–Human Systems
Subtitle of host publicationFundamentals and Applications
Number of pages21
ISBN (Electronic)9781119857433
ISBN (Print)9781119857402
StatePublished - Jan 1 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. All rights reserved.


  • Aerospace
  • Automation
  • Automotive
  • Autonomy
  • Biomedical
  • Building management
  • Climate change
  • Control applications
  • History of control
  • Human–computer interaction
  • Human–machine control
  • Process industries


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