Human APOBEC3 proteins, retrovirus restriction and HIV drug resistance

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47 Scopus citations


Over 40 million people worldwide currently have HIV/AIDS. Many antiretroviral drugs have proven effective, but drug-resistant HIV variants frequently emerge to thwart treatment efforts. Reverse transcription errors undoubtedly contribute to drug resistance, but additional significant sources of viral genetic variation are debatable. The human APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G proteins can potently inhibit retrovirus infection by a mechanism that involves retroviral cDNA cytosine deamination. Here we review the current knowledge on the mechanism of APOBEC3-dependent retrovirus restriction and discuss whether this innate host-defense system actively contributes to HIV genetic, variation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)148-157
Number of pages10
JournalAIDS Reviews
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 2006


  • Drug resistance
  • HIV
  • Innate immunity
  • Retrovirus restriction
  • Vif


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