Human and rhesus APOBEC3D, APOBEC3F, APOBEC3G, and APOBEC3H demonstrate a conserved capacity to restrict Vif-Deficient HIV-1

Judd F. Hultquist, Joy A. Lengyel, Eric W. Refsland, Rebecca S LaRue, Lela Lackey, William L Brown, Reuben Harris

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

213 Scopus citations

Abstract

Successful intracellular pathogens must evade or neutralize the innate immune defenses of their host cells and render the cellular environment permissive for replication. For example, to replicate efficiently in CD4 + T lymphocytes, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) encodes a protein called viral infectivity factor (Vif) that promotes pathogenesis by triggering the degradation of the retrovirus restriction factor APOBEC3G. Other APOBEC3 proteins have been implicated in HIV-1 restriction, but the relevant repertoire remains ambiguous. Here we present the first comprehensive analysis of the complete, seven-member human and rhesus APOBEC3 families in HIV-1 restriction. In addition to APOBEC3G, we find that three other human APOBEC3 proteins, APOBEC3D, APOBEC3F, and APOBEC3H, are all potent HIV-1 restriction factors. These four proteins are expressed in CD4 + T lymphocytes, are packaged into and restrict Vif-deficient HIV-1 when stably expressed in T cells, mutate proviral DNA, and are counteracted by HIV-1 Vif. Furthermore, APOBEC3D, APOBEC3F, APOBEC3G, and APOBEC3H of the rhesus macaque also are packaged into and restrict Vif-deficient HIV-1 when stably expressed in T cells, and they are all neutralized by the simian immunodeficiency virus Vif protein. On the other hand, neither human nor rhesus APOBEC3A, APOBEC3B, nor APOBEC3C had a significant impact on HIV-1 replication. These data strongly implicate a combination of four APOBEC3 proteins-APOBEC3D, APOBEC3F, APOBEC3G, and APOBEC3H-in HIV-1 restriction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)11220-11234
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of virology
Volume85
Issue number21
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2011

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