How youth of color create communities of hope: Connecting advocacy, activity, and neighborhood change

Anna J. Kim, Jasmine Jones-Bynes, Nisha Botchwey, Terry L. Conway

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


The primary aim of this paper was to assess the association of after-school club characteristics with changes in physical activity, nutrition, and attitudes in students of color after participating in the “YEAH!” Advocacy-based Physical Activity Program. We examine the strengths of school-based vs. non-school based programs in promoting feelings of self-efficacy and empowerment among students learning to become more physically active—and importantly, also test the strength of how programs that are more connected (to community-based partners) may contribute to students’ optimism around policy and public health as it directly affects them. This study examined differences in the youth advocacy training impact across four after-school club types: school-based with community partnerships, school-based without partnerships, non-school-based with community partners, and non-school-based clubs without partnerships. We measured improvements in youth’s “optimism for change”, “assertiveness” and “decision-making” as related to after school activities and found that non-school-based programs with community partners showed highest positive impact.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number3133
Pages (from-to)1-22
Number of pages22
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue number6
StatePublished - Mar 2 2021
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding: This work was supported by a grant from The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation as part of the Physical Activity Research Center (PARC). The funder had no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the article for publication.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Advocacy
  • After-school programs
  • Community engagement
  • Neighborhood inequality
  • Physical activity
  • Youth participation


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